This tutorial walks you through the creation of a basic web site edition of some historical letters. It is designed to provide familiarity with how some of the pieces of Kiln work and can be used together. It is not a tutorial in the individual technologies; it does not try to teach XSLT programming, or RDF, or Solr. However, it also does not require any great knowledge of same.


Installation of Kiln itself is simple. You can download a ZIP file of all the code and unpack it, or use the Git version control system to clone the repository. Either way, the code is available at the Kiln repository, and you’ll end up with that code somewhere on your filesystem.

You’ll also need to have Java 1.7 installed. If it isn’t on your system already, you can download it from https://www.java.com/.

The development server

Let’s verify that the installation worked. From the command line, cd into the directory where you installed Kiln. There, run the build.sh script (if you are running GNU/Linux or Mac OS X) or the build.bat batch file (if you are running Windows). You’ll see the following output on the command line:

Buildfile: <path to your Kiln>/local.build.xml
Development server is running at
Quit the server with CONTROL-C.

You’ve started Jetty, a lightweight web server, that is pre-configured to run all of the various Kiln components. Note that it may take a few seconds after it prints out the above for the server to become responsive.

Now that the server is running, visit with your web browser. You’ll see a “Welcome to Kiln” page.


Changing the port

By default, the build command starts the development server on the internal IP at port 9999.

If you want to change the server’s port, pass it as a command-line argument. For instance, this command starts the server on port 8080:

./build.sh -Djetty.port=8080

To change the default, edit the value of jetty.port in the file local.build.properties.

The default values of the Solr and RDF4J servers, as specified in webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/config.xmap, use port 9999, so if you intend to use those under the dev server, that value will need to be changed.

Adding content

The main content of many Kiln sites is held in TEI XML files, so let’s add some. Unzip the accompanying set of TEI files into webapps/ROOT/content/xml/tei/.

Now navigate to the text overview at, available as the Texts menu option. This presents a table with various details of the texts in sortable columns. With only a homogenous collection of a few letters, this is not very useful, but it does provide links to the individual texts. Follow the link to the first letter.

Customising the TEI display

Given the enormous flexibility of the TEI to express various semantics, and the range of possible displays of a TEI document, there is no one size fits all solution to the problem of transforming a TEI document into HTML. Kiln comes with XSLT code that provides support for some types of markup, but it is expected for each project to either customise it or replace it altogether. Let’s do the former.

Kiln uses the XSLT at webapps/ROOT/stylesheets/tei/to-html.xsl to convert TEI into HTML. Open that file in your preferred XML editor. As you can see, it is very short! All it does is import another XSLT, that lives at webapps/ROOT/kiln/stylesheets/tei/to-html.xsl. This illustrates one of the ways that Kiln provides a separation between Kiln’s defaults and project-specific material. Rather than change the XSLT that forms part of Kiln (typically, files that live in webapps/ROOT/kiln), you change files that themselves import those files. This way, if you upgrade Kiln and those files have changed, you’re not stuck trying to merge the changes you made back into the latest file. And if you don’t want to make use of Kiln’s XSLT, just remove the import.


So how does Kiln know that we want to transform the TEI into HTML using this particular XSLT?

This is specified in a Cocoon sitemap file, which defines the URLs in your site, and what to do, and to what, for each of them. In this case any request for a URL starting texts/ and ending in .html will result in the XML file with the same name being read from the filesystem, preprocessed, and then transformed using the to-html.xsl code.

Sitemap files are discussed later in the tutorial.

Let’s change the rendering, in an admittedly trivial way, so that the names of people and places are italicised. This involves adding a template like the following:

<xsl:template match="tei:persName | tei:placeName">
    <xsl:apply-templates />

Add this after the xsl:import element. Now reload the page showing that text, and you’ll see the text rerendered with italics sprinkled throughout.


Cocoon automatically caches the results of most requests, and invalidates that cache when it detects changes to the files used in creating the resource. Thus after making a change to to-html.xsl (the one in stylesheets/tei, not the one in kiln/stylesheets/tei/), reloading the text shows the effects of that change. However, Cocoon does not follow xsl:import and xsl:include references when checking for changed files. This means that if you change such an imported/included file, the cached version of the resource will be used.

To ensure that the cache is invalidated in such cases, update the timestamp of the including file, or the source document. This can be done by re-saving the file (add a space, remove it, and save).

Adding images

Images referenced within TEI files (using tei:figure/tei:graphic) are converted by the kiln/stylesheets/tei/to-html.xsl XSLT into HTML img elements. The src URL is typically to /images/{/tei:TEI/@xml:id}/{@url} and these URLs are resolved to look in content/images/ for the file. So if you add the following to content/xml/tei/Had1.xml:

  <graphic url="image-filename.jpg" />
  <figDesc>This becomes HTML alt text.</figDesc>

and place image-filename.jpg (using whatever JPEG image file you wish) in content/images/Had1/, the image should appear in the HTML display.

Images that are part of the site design, rather than content, should be put in assets/images/, and the pipelines in kiln/sitemaps/assets.xmap used. In a template, for example:

<img src="{$kiln:assets-path}/images/logo.jpg" alt="My Favourite Sponsor" />

Kiln can support any image file type, since no processing is done to the files. The pipelines simply transmit the files with an appropriate MIME type. Pipelines exist for GIF, JPEG, and PNG images; others are easily added, to sitemaps/main.xmap and/or kiln/sitemaps/assets.xmap.

Searching and indexing


In order to provide any useful results, the search engine must index the TEI documents. This functionality is made available in the admin section of the site. You can either index each document individually, or index them all at once.


If you started Kiln with a different port from the default, you must change the port in solr-server element in the file webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/config.xmap to match.

There are two possible parts of customising the indexing: changing the available fields that data can be indexed into, and changing the XSLT that specifies what information gets stored in which fields.

To change the fields in the index, modify the Solr schema document at webapps/solr/conf/schema.xml. Refer to the Solr documentation for extensive documentation on this and all other aspects of the Solr search platform.

It would be useful to index the recipient of each letter, so that this may be displayed as a facet in search results. In the fields element in schema.xml, define a recipient field:

<field indexed="true" multiValued="false" name="recipient"
       required="true" stored="true" type="string" />

After changing the schema, you will need to restart Jetty so that the new configuration is loaded. You can check the schema that Solr is using via the Solr admin interface at (the specific URL is http://localhost:9999/solr/#/collection1/schema).

Changing the data that is indexed is done by modifying the XSLT stylesheets/solr/tei-to-solr.xsl. Just as with the TEI to HTML transformation, this XSLT imports a default Kiln XSLT that can be overridden. We need to modify this file (not the default Kiln XSLT) to add in the indexing of the recipient into the new schema. Looking at kiln/stylesheets/solr/tei-to-solr.xsl, the default indexing XSLT traverses through the teiHeader’s descendant elements in the mode document-metadata. It is a simple matter to add in a template to match on the appropriate element:

<xsl:template match="tei:profileDesc/tei:particDesc//tei:person[@role='recipient']"
  <field name="recipient">
    <xsl:value-of select="normalize-space()" />

You will also need to add a namespace declaration for the tei prefix to the root xsl:stylesheet element: xmlns:tei="http://www.tei-c.org/ns/1.0".

Now reindex the letters.


Omitting a namespace prefix that is used in an XPath expression in an XSLT document will cause incomprehensible and difficult to debug errors in the output, rather than a useful error message. If you get results that make no sense, check that all of the namespace prefixes that are used in the code are declared!


To customise the use of facets, modify the XML file webapps/ROOT/assets/queries/solr/facet_query.xml. This file defines the base query that a user’s search terms are added to, and can also be used to customise all other parts of the query, such as how many search results are displayed per page. The format is straightforward; simply add elements with names matching the Solr query parameters. You can have multiple elements with the same name, and the query processor will construct it into the proper form for Solr to interpret.

Add in a facet for the recipient field and perform a search. The new facet is automatically displayed on the search results page, and should look something like this:

Results display

The default results display is defined in stylesheets/solr/results-to-html.xsl and gives only the title of the matching documents. Modify that XSLT to provide whatever format of search results best suits your needs.

Building static pages

Not all pages in a site need be generated dynamically from TEI documents. Let’s add an “About the project” page with the following steps.


This section introduces a lot of concepts that may be entirely new to you. Some of this is about the Cocoon software; if you need more information, try looking at the Overview of Apache Cocoon and Cocoon Concepts documentation on the Cocoon site.

Adding a URL handler

Each URL or set of URLs available in your web application is defined in a Cocoon sitemap that specifies the source document(s), a set of transformations to that document, and an output format for the result. Sitemaps are XML files, and are best edited in an XML editor. Open the file webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/main.xmap.

The bulk of this file is the contents of the map:pipelines element, which holds several map:pipeline elements. In turn, these hold the URL definitions that are the map:match elements. Each map:match has a pattern attribute that specifies the URL(s) that it defines. This pattern can include wildcards, * and **, that match on any sequence of characters except / and any sequence of characters, respectively.

The order of the map:match elements is important — when a request for a URL is handled by Kiln, it is processed using the first map:match whose pattern matches that URL. Then the child elements of the map:match are executed (the XML here is all interpreted as code) in order.

Go to the part of the document that defines the handler for the search/ URL. Below that, add in a match for the URL about.html. Since we’ll be putting the content of the page we want to return into the template (this is not the only way to do it!), our source document is just the menu, and the only transformation is applying the template. Your map:match should look something like the following (and very similar to the one for the home page):

<map:match id="local-about" pattern="*/about.html">
  <map:aggregate element="aggregation">
    <map:part src="cocoon://_internal/menu/main.xml?url={1}/about.html" />
  <map:transform src="cocoon://_internal/template/about.xsl">
    <map:parameter name="language" value="{1}" />
  <map:serialize />

Even in such a short fragment there is a lot going on. The pattern="about.html" attribute specifies that when a request is made for the URL http://localhost:9999/about.html (assuming we are running on the default Kiln development server), the response is defined by the contents of this map:match element. As mentioned above, each of these definitions consists of generating a source document, transforming it in some fashion, and serialising the result in some format (such as XML or HTML or PDF). Only one document can be generated, and it is serialised only once, but there can be any number of transformations that occur in between.

map:aggregate creates an XML document with a root element of aggregation, containing in this case one part (subelement). This part is the product of internally making a request for the URL _internal/menu/main.xml?url=about.html, which returns the menu structure. The use of URLs starting with cocoon:/ is common, and allows a modular structure with lots of individual pieces that can be put together. If you want to see the map:match that handles this menu URL, open webapps/ROOT/kiln/sitemaps/main.xmap and look for the kiln-menu pipeline.


A pipeline (a collection of map:match elements) may be marked as internal only (map:pipeline internal-only="true"), meaning that it is only available to requests from within Kiln (via a cocoon:/ or cocoon:// URL). If you request a URL that is matched by such an internal pipeline, such as via your browser, it will not match.

Kiln’s generic pipelines are generally marked as internal only, and are grouped under the URL _internal (eg, http://localhost:9999/_internal/menu/main.xml). It also uses the convention of putting internal only pipelines that are project specific under the URL internal (without the initial underscore).

The templating transformation, which puts the content of the aggregation element into a template, also internally requests a URL. That URL returns the XML template file transformed into an XSLT document, which is then applied to the source document!

Finally, the document is serialised; in this case no serializer is specified, meaning that the default (HTML 5) is used.

Now that the about.html URL is defined, try requesting it at Not surprisingly, an error occurred, because (as the first line of the stacktrace reveals) there is no about.xml template file. It’s time to make one.

Adding a template

Template files live in webapps/ROOT/assets/templates/. They are XML files, and must end in .xml. In the map:match we just created, the template was referenced at the URL cocoon://_internal/template/about.xsl — there the xsl extension informally specifies the format of the document returned by a request to that URL, but it reads the source file about.xml in the templates directory. You can see how this works in the sitemap file webapps/ROOT/kiln/sitemaps/main.xmap in the kiln-templating pipeline.

Create a new file, about.xml, in the template directory. We could define everything we want output in this file, but it’s much better to reuse the structure and style used by other pages on the site. Kiln templates use a system of inheritance in which a parent template defines arbitrary blocks of output that a child template can override or append to. Open the base.xml file in the templates directory to see the root template the default Kiln site uses. Mostly this is just a lot of HTML, but wrapped into chunks via kiln:block elements. Now look at the tei.xml template, which shows how a template can inherit from another and provide content only for those blocks that it needs to.

Go ahead and add to about.xml (using tei.xml as a guide) whatever content you want the “About the project” page to have. This should just be HTML markup and content, placed inside the appropriate kiln:block elements. Since there is no source document being transformed, there’s no need to have the xsl:import that tei.xml has, and wherever it has xsl:value-of or xsl:apply-templates, you should just put in whatever text and HTML 5 markup you want directly.

Updating the menu

In the map:match you created in main.xmap above, the aggregated source document consisted only of a call to a URL (cocoon://_internal/menu/main.xml?url={1}/about.htm) to get a menu document. In that URL, main.xml specifies the name of the menu file to use, which lives in webapps/ROOT/assets/menu/. Let’s edit that file to add in an entry for the new About page. This is easy to do by just inserting the following:

<menu match="local-about" label="About the project" />

Reload any of the pages of the site and you should now see the new menu item. Obviously this menu is still very simple, with no hierarchy. Read the full menu documentation for details on how to handle more complex setups.

Harvesting RDF

In order to make use of Kiln’s RDF capabilities, some setup is required. Firstly create a repository in the RDF4J server using the “New repository” link at, using the default options. The ID you provide should just contain letters.

Next set two variables in webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/config.xmap: sesame-server-repository to the name of the repository you just created, and rdf-base-uri to any absolute URI for your triples; we’ll use http://www.example.org/.

With that setup done, it is time to create the XSLT that will generate RDF XML from the TEI documents. Place the provided harvesting XSLT at webapps/ROOT/stylesheets/rdf/tei-to-rdf.xsl (replacing the existing placeholder file). Now you can harvest the RDF data using the links in the admin. You can use the workbench link given above to examine the data in the repository.


Both the ontology and the harvesting are primitive, and designed to be simple enough for the tutorial, without being entirely trivial. Harvesting the ontology from each TEI document is not good practice, nor is harvesting identifiers multiple times for the same entity.

Querying RDF

Having put RDF data into the repository, it is of course necessary to be able to get it back out. The simplest approach is to create an XML file in webapps/ROOT/assets/queries/sparql/ that has a root query element containing the plain text of the SPARQL query.

For example, to retrieve just the triples giving the recipient of each letter, save the following to webapps/ROOT/assets/queries/sparql/recipients.xml:

PREFIX ex:&lt;http://www.example.org/>
PREFIX rdf:&lt;http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#>

CONSTRUCT { ?correspondence ex:has_recipient ?recipient ;
                            ex:has_document ?letter . }
WHERE { ?correspondence ex:has_recipient ?recipient ;
                        ex:has_document ?letter . }


Within an XML SPARQL query document, XML rules apply, meaning that XML-significant characters (primarily <) need to be escaped (&lt;).

To get the results from this query, use the URL cocoon://admin/rdf/query/graph/recipients.xml in a sitemap’s map:generate or map:part src attribute. Remember that map:generate and map:aggregate (which contains map:part elements) are the way that Cocoon generates a source document.


While the Sesame RDF server can return results in various formats, due to Kiln working best with XML documents it is set up to make Graph Queries (using the CONSTRUCT command) with results in RDF XML.

Let’s use a similar set of query results to display a list of other letters to the same recipient on each letter’s page. As it stands the query returns the letters for all recipients in the collection, not just those that match a particular recipient. Therefore we need a way to pass in the name of the current letter’s recipient to the query and get back the filtered results. Remember that the query document is just an XML document, so we can modify it with XSLT to supply that value.

The new query should be saved at webapps/ROOT/assets/queries/sparql/recipients.xml (you don’t need the old version). Take a look at how it has changed, through the addition of the recipient element placeholder and using a custom output that better matches the information we want.

The URL mentioned above for performing a query of the RDF server calls the URL cocoon://admin/rdf/construct/graph/{1}.xml (where “{1}” is whatever is matched by the “**” of the first URL). This URL is handled by a map:match in webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/rdf.xmap, by reading the specified file. It is this map:match that needs to be modified or added to in order to customise the query.

Since you may want to handle multiple SPARQL queries in different ways, we’ll add another map:match, before the one with the id “local-rdf-query-from-file”. Its pattern needs to match /admin/rdf/construct/graph/**.xml, but be more specific to catch only the recipient query. There also needs to be an element in the URL that specifies the particular recipient we want to include in the query. A pattern of construct/graph/recipient/*.xml is suitable, where * will be the recipient name. The path to the query file can be specified explicitly.


The “/admin/rdf” part of the URL is common to all patterns specified in the rdf.xmap file. A sitemap file (*.xmap) includes another sitemap by mounting it at a particular URL, and can specify a URI prefix that is common to all URL patterns defined therein. See the uri-prefix attributes on the map:mount elements in main.xmap and admin.xmap.

The full map:match is as follows:

<map:match pattern="construct/graph/recipient/*.xml">
  <map:generate src="../assets/queries/sparql/recipients.xml" />
  <map:transform src="../stylesheets/rdf/add-recipient.xsl">
    <map:parameter name="recipient" value="{1}" />
  <map:serialize type="xml" />

Note how the name of the recipient (that will be matched by * in the pattern) is passed as a parameter to the XSLT. That XSLT, which is very simple, is as follows:

<xsl:stylesheet version="2.0"

  <xsl:param name="recipient" />

  <xsl:template match="recipient">
    <xsl:value-of select="$recipient" />

  <xsl:template match="*">
      <xsl:apply-templates />

This should be saved to webapps/ROOT/stylesheets/rdf/add-recipient.xsl.

Now of course we need to call the query URL, including the specific recipient name to search on. This means the request for that URL must come at a point in the processing that has access to the TEI document being displayed. We’ll use an XInclude to include the query results in our TEI document. This works by adding an XInclude element with an href attribute specifying the URL of the resource to be included, and then using Cocoon’s XInclude processor to perform the actual inclusion.

To add the XInclude element, we of course use XSLT. In webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/main.xmap, modify the map:match for TEI display (its id is “local-tei-display-html”) to add the line:

<map:transform src="../stylesheets/tei/add-recipient-query.xsl" />

before the existing map:transform. Then place the provided XSLT at webapps/ROOT/stylesheets/tei/add-recipient-query.xsl. This XSLT just copies the existing document and adds the XInclude element.

To actually process the XInclude element so that the resource at the URL it specifies is included into the document, add the following line to the map:match, immediately after the map:transform element you just added:

<map:transform type="xinclude" />

Now the document that is manipulated by the template consists of a top-level aggregation element that has three sub-elements: tei:TEI (the TEI document), kiln:nav (the site navigation), and rdf:RDF, the query results. It’s now possible, after all this setup, to modify the template to transform the query results into the list of other letters to the same recipient. Edit webapps/ROOT/assets/templates/tei.xml and add the line:

<xsl:apply-templates mode="recipients" select="/aggregation/rdf:RDF" />

after the line that applies templates to the teiHeader element (and before the closing div tag). You will also need to add a namespace declaration to the kiln:root element:


Now edit webapps/ROOT/stylesheets/tei/to-html.xsl and add in the following (along with, again, the RDF namespace declaration and one binding the prefix ex to http://www.example.org/; you’ll get some odd errors if you don’t!):

<xsl:template match="rdf:RDF" mode="recipients">
  <xsl:if test="count(rdf:Description) &gt; 1">
    <div class="section-container accordion" data-section="accordion">
        <h2 class="title" data-section-title="">
          <small><a href="#">Other Letters to this Recipient</a></small>
        <div class="content" data-section-content="">
          <ul class="no-bullet">
            <xsl:apply-templates mode="recipients" />

<xsl:template match="rdf:Description" mode="recipients">
  <xsl:variable name="tei_id" select="ex:has_identifier" />
  <xsl:if test="$tei_id != /aggregation/tei:TEI/@xml:id">
      <a href="{$tei_id}.html">
        <xsl:value-of select="ex:has_date" />

And there it is! It’s important to note that the above is not the only way to achieve this result. The XInclude step might have been incorporated into the TEI preprocessing pipeline; or the RDF query modified to use the TEI ID as the variable rather than the recipient’s name; or the letter title harvested and used as the link title rather than the date. Much depends, in crafting the components that go into generating the resource for a URL, on whether and how those components are used by other parts of the system.

Development aids

The admin section provides a few useful tools for developers in addition to the processes that can be applied to texts. The Introspection section allows you to look at some of what Kiln is doing when it runs.

Match for URL takes a URL and shows you the full Cocoon map:match that processes that URL. It expands all references, and links to all XSLT, so that what can be scattered across multiple sitemap files, with many references to * and **, becomes a single annotated piece of XML. Mousing over various parts of the output will reveal details such as the sitemap file containing the line or the values of wildcards.

Much the same display is available for each map:match that has an ID, in Match by ID.

Finally, Templates by filename provides the expanded XSLT (all imported and included XSLT are recursively included) for each template, and how that template renders an empty document.

The level of detail in the error messages Kiln provides can be reduced by setting the debug element’s value to 0 in the file webapps/ROOT/sitemaps/config.xmap. This should be done in production environments to avoid providing useless and/or system information revealing information to users.